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Plutonium separation enrichment

Oct 03, 2013 Advances in laser enrichment may enable relatively low-cost plutonium isotopic separation. This would have large impacts on LWR closed fuel cycles and waste management. If Pu-240 is removed before recycling plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, it would dramatically reduce the buildup of higher plutonium isotopes, Americium, and Curium

  • Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 2015
    Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium 2015

    plutonium production should be balanced by the general difficulty of operating reactors and plutonium separation plants. This is reinforced in the context of Israel by a comment several years ago (in the 1990s) to the author by a then former head of Israel’s Atomic Energy Commission who said that plutonium was harder to produce than many think

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  • Breaking down the jargon: nuclear programs, uranium and
    Breaking down the jargon: nuclear programs, uranium and

    Sep 01, 2021 The confusion has arisen in part because terms such as uranium enrichment, plutonium separation and fuel cycle have slipped into the common lexicon, cropping up in news stories, political speeches made by Members of Congress and the President, and even in political advertisements. Some are trying to educate while others are trying to horrify

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  • Plutonium Production - Fourmilab
    Plutonium Production - Fourmilab

    Elsewhere we've explored uranium enrichment, a dual-use technology which can be used either to enrich natural uranium for use in civil nuclear power reactors or, through further enrichment, for use in nuclear weapons.Now, let's examine the other path to the bomb: the production of plutonium from natural uranium by irradiation in a nuclear reactor and chemical separation

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  • Prelude to nuclear weapons | Nuclear Weapons Education
    Prelude to nuclear weapons | Nuclear Weapons Education

    The report also totally dismissed the idea of a Plutonium weapon as an option. The report said that enrichment by gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic separation, and centrifuge would probably be the most successful approaches. However, they supported enrichment by gaseous diffusion by an overwhelming majority

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  • The history of nuclear power’s imagined future: Plutonium
    The history of nuclear power’s imagined future: Plutonium

    Sep 07, 2021 Separated civil plutonium should be formally regarded as a waste, not a fuel that has value. It is time for governments and industries to acknowledge – everywhere – that civil reprocessing, plutonium’s provider, is a waste-generating and complicating technology, a source of dangers and burdens rather than putative benefits. Much better solutions to spent fuel management and energy

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  • Manhattan Project: Difficult Choices, 1942
    Manhattan Project: Difficult Choices, 1942

    To this end, Arthur Compton consolidated most plutonium research at the new Metallurgical Laboratory (Met Lab) at the University of Chicago. A program review conducted in May 1942 determined that no front runner in the race for the bomb existed and recommended that the three isotope separation methods and the pile project be pushed as fast as

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  • Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction | Military Wiki
    Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction | Military Wiki

    Despite many setbacks and international embargo, PAEC continued its research on plutonium and created a separated electromagnetic isotope separation program alongside the enrichment program, under Dr. G D Allam, a theoretical physicist. Towards the end of

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  • Uranium Enrichment | Enrichment of uranium - World
    Uranium Enrichment | Enrichment of uranium - World

    The large Georges Besse I enrichment plant at Tricastin in France (beyond cooling towers) was shut down in 2012. Most of the output from the nuclear power plant (4x915MWe net) was used to power the enrichment facility. Electromagnetic process. A very early endeavour was the electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) process using calutrons

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  • Behind the Bomb: What About Plutonium Separation? by
    Behind the Bomb: What About Plutonium Separation? by

    Behind the Bomb: What About Plutonium Separation? from Politics and Polls on Podchaser, aired Thursday, 17th September 2015. The Iran nuclear deal proposes limiting Iran's production of enriched uranium and plutonium – the two fissile materials used to build nuclear weapons –

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  • International Panel on Fissile Materials Plutonium
    International Panel on Fissile Materials Plutonium

    5.2 India’s stockpile of separated reactor-grade plutonium, 1988 – 2014 58 5.3 Scenario for India’s plutonium stock with six FBRs, 2015 – 2025 59 6.1 Japan’s stockpile of separated plutonium, 1993 – 2025 65 6.2 Japan’s Rokkasho reprocessing plant 67 7.1 Dry spent fuel storage at South Korea’s Wolsong nuclear plant, 2014 74

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  • Plutonium - World Nuclear Association
    Plutonium - World Nuclear Association

    Plutonium. Info paper on Pu, Over one third of the energy produced in most nuclear power plants comes from plutonium. Plutonium has occurred naturally, but except for trace quantities it is not now found in the earth's crust. There are several tonnes of plutonium in our biosphere. Plutonium is radiologically hazardous, particularly if inhaled, so must be handled with appropriate precautions

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  • Plutonium Reprocessing - Nuclear Weapons
    Plutonium Reprocessing - Nuclear Weapons

    Jul 24, 2011 Plutonium is removed from spent fuel by chemical separation; no nuclear or physical separation (as for example in uranium enrichment) is needed

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  • Enrichment of uranium and production and
    Enrichment of uranium and production and

    Separation factor (1.3 to 1.6) •Proportional to peripheral velocity squared V. 2 •Proportional6 to rotor length2 L •Inversely proportional to temperature T 1.00429 349 352 m m α . 1 = = = 2 2 2 2 1. m v 2 1 m v 2 1. 1 = 1 2 2 1. m m v v = m 238 6*19 352 ( UF ) m 235 6*19 349 ( UF ) 6 238 2 235 1 = + = = + = Each stage increases enrichment by less than 1%

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  • New IPFM Report: Plutonium Separation in Nuclear Power
    New IPFM Report: Plutonium Separation in Nuclear Power

    Jul 17, 2015 The report looks at the history, current status and prospects of programs aimed at separating plutonium for civilian use from spent fuel produced by nuclear power reactors. Today only China, France, India, Japan, Russia and the United Kingdom have active civilian reprocessing programs, and all of these programs are detailed in the report

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  • The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: History and
    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: History and

    Jul 01, 2020 The uranium-enrichment and plutonium-separation efforts of Iraq, North Korea, and Iran have produced renewed calls for the NPT not to permit such efforts even if subject to IAEA inspection. The concern is that, once a country gains access to this technology, it might then withdraw from the NPT (as North Korea did) and use its stocks of weapons-usable uranium or plutonium to make weapons

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  • Weapon Materials Basics | Union of Concerned
    Weapon Materials Basics | Union of Concerned

    Jul 18, 2009 Plutonium separation is easier than uranium enrichment because it involves separating different elements rather than different isotopes of the same element, and it uses well known chemical separation techniques. However, since the spent fuel is highly radioactive, this process requires heavily shielded facilities with remote-handling equipment

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  • Isotope separation - Wikipedia
    Isotope separation - Wikipedia

    Plutonium-based weapons use plutonium produced in a nuclear reactor, which must be operated in such a way as to produce plutonium already of suitable isotopic mix or grade. While different chemical elements can be purified through chemical processes , isotopes of the same element have nearly identical chemical properties, which makes this type of separation impractical, except for separation

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  • IAEA chief: North Korea’s nuclear program going 'full
    IAEA chief: North Korea’s nuclear program going 'full

    Sep 20, 2021 “In the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, (the) nuclear program goes full steam ahead with work on plutonium separation, uranium enrichment and other activities,” Grossi told an

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  • Uranium isotope separation from 1941 to the
    Uranium isotope separation from 1941 to the

    Feb 11, 2010 Also in 1941 plutonium was discovered and the production of {sup 239}Pu was included into the atomic bomb program. {sup 235}U enrichment starting with natural uranium was performed in two steps with different techniques of mass separation in Oak Ridge. The first step was gas diffusion which was limited to low enrichment

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